Explanations

 

Explanation merupakan salah satu text genre yang bertujuan untuk menerangkan atau menjelaskan proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau peristiwa/kejadian yang terkait dengan fenomena alam, dunia ilmiah, social budaya, atau lainnya.

 Teks explanations memiliki ciri-ciri:

a. Menggunakan kata benda umum (common nouns), misalnya: Sound recording, production.

b. Menggunakan kata kerja tindakan (action verbs), misalnya: to play, to record, to retrieve.

c. Umumnya menggunakan simple present tense, misalnya: A microphone changes the acoustic energy of sound waves in the air into electrical signals.

d. Sebagian besar text menggunakan kalimat pasif, misalnya: The signals are then sent to a loudspeaker, which convert them back into sound.

e. Menggunakan kata hubung penunjuk waktu dan sebab-akibat, misalnya: after, then, atau because.

f. Menggunakan phrasal nouns (frase benda) misalnya: Sound recording and reproduction the future access,  

g. Menggunakan technical terms (istilah teknis) misalnya: diaphragm, electrical signal.

 

Sebuah teks explanation mempunyai ciri struktur teks sebagai berikut:

a. General Statement: pernyataan/penjelasan umum.

b. Sequenced explanation: penjelasan tentang proses atau langkah-langkah.

c. Conclusion : penutup.

 

Sekarang, coba baca dua teks di bawah ini dan kerjakan soal-soal latihan yang menyertainya. Teks pertama berisi penjelasan mengenai proses rekaman dan yang kedua mengenai penjelasan proses pembuatan kertas.

 

Selamat mencoba.

 

READING 1

 

Activity 1

Read the following text

SOUND RECORDING SESSION

Sound recording and reproduction are two separate processes used to record, store and play back sounds.

Sound recording uses microphones to pick up sound waves in the air. The pressure changes associated with the waves are converted into electrical signals, which can be coded and stored for the future access.

Sound reproduction, or playback, uses additional devices to retrieve the stored information and convert it back into electrical signals. The signals are then sent to a loudspeaker, which convert them back into sound.

To record sound, a microphone changes the acoustic energy of sound waves in the air into electrical signals. Inside a microphone is a thin, flat, metallic surface, called diaphragm, that is suspended in a magnetic field. When a sound wave reaches the microphone, the air pressure changes around the diaphragm, causing the diaphragm to move. This movement within the magnetic field creates an electrical signal. The signal is then transferred to a storage medium, such as a cassette tape, a compact disk (CD), or a phonograph record.

To reproduce sound, a playing device – such as a CD player, cassette deck, or phonograph – accesses the stored data. The playing device reads the data and converts the information back into electric energy. The electrical signal is sent to a loudspeaker, which has a diaphragm housed in a magnetic field in much the same way as a microphone’s diaphragm is housed. The electrical signal creates a disturbance in the magnetic field cause the diaphragm to move. As the diaphragm moves, it pushes out and pulls in, creating changes in air pressure to recreate the sound that was originally recorded.

Sound recording and reproduction form the foundation of many industries, including the entertainment, communications, and multimedia business. Recording and reproduction of sound allow people to play their favorite music, whether it was recorded yesterday or many years ago. Radio networks rely on sound recording and reproduction for storing news and other type of programming. Television and motion pictures combine images with music, speech and sound effects to provide the viewer with an enriched experience. Computer programs, multimedia software, and video games also use sound to make programs more engaging.

Activity 2

Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.

STATEMENT

T/F

1. Sound recording is a process used to pick up sound waves in the air.

  1. Sound recording uses additional devices to retrieve the stored information and change it back into electrical signals.
  2. A microphone is used in the sound production to read and change the data.
  3. A diaphragm is a thin, flat, metallic surface found inside a microphone.
  4. The electrical signal created by the movement within a magnetic field can be transferred to a compact disk.
  5. A loudspeaker is able to read the data and change the information back into electrical energy.
  6. In sound recording, the diaphragm moves because the air pleasure changes around the diaphragm.
  7. CD player and cassette deck are not used to reproduce sound.
  8. Radio Networks never depend on sound recording and reproduction for storing news and other types of programming.
  9. The foundation of entertainment, communication, and multimedia business industries has a very close relation with sound recording and production.

 

Activity 3

Answer the following questions based on the text.

1. What is sound recording?

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

______________________________

2. How many stages are there in sound recording process? What are they?

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

3. What is sound reproduction?

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

______________________________

4. How many stages are there in reproduction process? What are they?

____________________________________________

___________________________________________

______________________________

5. What is the purpose of the text?

____________________________________________

___________________________________________

______________________________

 

 

READING 3

 

Activity 4

Read the text and try to retell it to your friend.

Making paper from wood-chips

Do you have any paper in your bag? It may seem a silly question but do you know how to make paper? What is paper made of? Have you ever heard about wood chipping? Wood chipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees.

Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called wood-chips/ the wood chips then are screened to remover dirt and other impurities. At this state they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed.

Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Considering the complexity of making paper, let’s appreciate any paper on our hands. Use it more effectively.

Activity 5

Answer the following questions based on the text above.

1. What is wood chips?

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

______________________________

2. What is the first paragraph about?

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

______________________________

3. What is the second paragraph about?

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

______________________________

4. What is the third paragraph about?

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

______________________________

5. How is the wood chips made?

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

______________________________

6. What should be done before the pulp is rolled to make paper?

____________________________________________

____________________________________________

______________________________

7. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken  to a chipper which cuts them

Them refers to ____________

Activity 6

Fill in the blanks with appropriate verbs

 

1. Malaria is an infectious disease which ____________ (cause) by Plasmodium.

2. U.S. citizenship may ____________(take) away if a person wears an oath of loyalty or allegiance to a foreign country.

3. Some things __________(collect) deliberately in the home in an attempt to avoid waste.

4. The human body __________(make) up of countless million of cells.

5. The food that we take into mouth must ________(change) into substances that can be carried in the blood.

6. The first digestive process _______(take) place in the mouth

7. Sound recording ________(use) microphones to pick up sound waves in the air

8. Electrical signals can _____(code) and stored for the future access.

9. The electrical signal ______ (sent) to a loudspeaker

Radio networks _______(rely) on sound recording and reproduction for storing news and other type of programming.

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